Federalist 10

Summary

In Federalist 10, James Madison argues that the Constitution establishes a government that can control the danger posed by factions. According to Madison, a faction is a group of citizens, either a majority or minority, united by a common interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens and the interests of the common good. Madison claims there are two methods for curing the dangers of faction: by removing its causes or by controlling its effects. The first way of removing its causes is to destroy liberty, which would be “worse than the disease.” The second way of removing the causes of factions is to give all citizens the same opinions and interests. However, this method is impossible because the causes of faction are inherent in the nature of men, and as long as men hold unequal amounts of property, they will have different interests and society will be divided based on those interests. Therefore, Madison states that the causes of faction cannot be removed, so the only remedy is to control its effects. Madison argues that a republican form of government is better than a pure democracy for controlling the effects of faction because in a republic, the citizens elect a small number of representatives to govern. Madison claims that those elected to government in America would be more likely to act in the best interest of the country because they are chosen by a greater number of citizens. Also, Madison says that republics are better than democracies because they extend over a larger territory. As a result, many factions will exist and it will be difficult for different factions to band together over a common interest and form a majority. Furthermore, Madison claims that the federal system created by the Constitution further protects against factions because while a faction may exert influence within one state, it will not be able to spread its influence to other states. Therefore, the republican remedy is the best method for controlling factions.


Original Text

Translation

The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safegaurd Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection

New York Packet
Friday, November 23, 1787
James Madison

To the People of the State of New York:

AMONG the numerous advantages promised by a well-constructed UnionUnion noun A political unit consisting of a number of states or provinces with the same central government., none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction. The friend of popular governments never finds himself so much alarmed for their character and fate, as when he contemplates their propensityPropensity noun An inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way. to this dangerous viceVice noun Immoral or wicked behavior.. He will not fail, therefore, to set a due value on any plan which, without violating the principles to which he is attached, provides a proper cure for it. The instability, injustice, and confusion introduced into the public councils, have, in truth, been the mortalMortal adjective Subject to death. diseases under which popularPopular adjective Of the people as a whole, especially of all citizens of a nation or state qualified to participate in an election. governments have everywhere perishedPerished verb To die or be destroyed.; as they continue to be the favorite and fruitful topics from which the adversariesAdversaries noun A person, group, or force that opposes or attacks; opponent; enemy. to liberty derive their most speciousSpecious adjective Pleasing to the eye, but deceptive. declamationsDeclamations noun Speech or writing for oratorical effect.. The valuable improvements made by the American constitutionsThe constitutions of each State. on the popular models, both ancient and modern, cannot certainly be too much admired; but it would be an unwarrantableUnwarrantable adjective Not able to be authorized or sanctioned; unjustifiable. partialityPartiality noun A favorable bias or prejudice., to contend that they have as effectually obviatedObviated verb To anticipate and prevent or eliminate. the danger on this side, as was wished and expected. Complaints are everywhere heard from our most considerate and virtuous citizens, equally the friends of public and private faith, and of public and personal liberty, that our governments are too unstable, that the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties, and that measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority. However anxiously we may wish that these complaints had no foundation, the evidence, of known facts will not permit us to deny that they are in some degree true. It will be found, indeed, on a candid review of our situation, that some of the distresses under which we labor have been erroneouslyErroneously adverb Containing error; mistaken; incorrect. charged on the operation of our governments; but it will be found, at the same time, that other causes will not alone account for many of our heaviest misfortunes; and, particularly, for that prevailing and increasing distrust of public engagements, and alarm for private rights, which are echoed from one end of the continent to the other. These must be chiefly, if not wholly, effects of the unsteadiness and injustice with which a factious spirit has tainted our public administrationsAdministrations noun The function of a political state in exercising its governmental duties.. Among the many advantages of a well-constructed Union, the tendency to break up and control factions deserves careful consideration. Factions alarm every supporter of popular governments, and these supporters will appreciate any plan that provides a cure for faction that does not violate the valued principles of liberty. Instability, injustice, and confusion have caused the destruction of popular governments everywhere, and the opponents of liberty use these excuses for their most misleading speeches. The American state constitutions make valuable improvements on the models of popular government that cannot be admired too much, but it is unjustifiable to claim that they have eliminated all dangers. Many considerate and virtuous citizens, in favor of public and personal liberty, complain that our governments are too unstable and that the public good is ignored in conflicts between rival parties. Often, measures are decided by the superior force of a dominating majority rather than the rules of justice and the rights of the minority. Although we wish that these complaints had no foundation, evidence shows they are in some degree true. A review of our situation shows that some of these distresses have been mistakenly blamed on the operations of our governments. However, there are many other causes for the increasing distrust of public engagements and fear for private rights across the nation. These must be mostly, if not completely, the effects of factions tainting our public offices of government.
By a faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuatedActuated verb To incite or move to action. by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregateAggregate adjective Formed by the conjunction or collection of particulars into a whole mass or sum; total. interests of the community. By faction, I am referring to a group of citizens, either a majority or minority, united and motivated by a common passion or interest that is unfavorable to the rights of other citizens or the combined interests of the community.
There are two methods of curing the mischiefsMischiefs noun A cause or source of harm, evil, or annoyance. of faction: the one, by removing its causes; the other, by controlling its effects. There are two methods of curing the problems of faction: by removing the causes that create factions or controlling the effects created by factions.
There are again two methods of removing the causes of faction: the one, by destroying the liberty which is essential to its existence; the other, by giving to every citizen the same opinions, the same passions, and the same interests. There are two methods of removing the causes of faction: destroying the liberty essential for its existence, or giving every citizen the same opinions, passions, and interests.
It could never be more truly said than of the first remedyRemedy noun Something that corrects or removes an evil of any kind., that it was worse than the disease. Liberty is to faction what air is to fire, an alimentAliment noun Food; nourishment. without which it instantly expires. But it could not be less folly to abolish liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes faction, than it would be to wish the annihilationAnnihilation noun An act of completely destroying or defeating someone or something. of air, which is essential to animal life, because it imparts to fire its destructive agency. The first remedy—destroying liberty—is worse than the disease. Liberty is to faction what air is to fire, the nourishment without which it instantly dies. Abolishing liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes factions is as ridiculous as wishing to get rid of air, which all living beings need, because it nourishes fire.
The second expedientExpedient noun A means to an end. is as impracticableImpracticable adjective Impossible in practice to do or carry out. as the first would be unwise. As long as the reason of man continues fallibleFallible adjective Capable of making mistakes., and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. As long as the connection subsistsSubsists verb Remain in being, force, or effect. between his reason and his self-love, his opinions and his passions will have a reciprocalReciprocal adjective Given or felt by each toward the other; mutual. influence on each other; and the former will be objects to which the latter will attach themselves. The diversity in the facultiesFaculties noun An inherent mental or physical power. of men, from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperableInsuperable adjective Impossible to overcome. obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of government. From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results; and from the influence of these on the sentimentsSentiments noun A view or attitude toward a situation or event. and views of the respective proprietorsProprietors noun The owner of a business or a holder of property., ensues a division of the society into different interests and parties. The second cure is as impossible as the first is unwise. As long as man’s reasoning is capable of making mistakes and he is free to use it, different opinions will be formed, and his reasoning will be motivated by his self-interest. The power to acquire property originates from the diversity in men’s abilities, which means men will always have different interests based on how much property they own. Since the government protects different and unequal abilities of acquiring property, people end up possessing unequal amounts. This diversity of property ownership divides society into groups with different interests.
The latentLatent adjective Existing but not yet developed or manifest; hidden. causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man; and we see them everywhere brought into different degrees of activity, according to the different circumstances of civil societyCivil society includes the family and private sphere of society, distinct from government and business.. A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculationSpeculation noun The forming of a theory or conjecture without firm evidence. as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre-eminencePre-eminence noun The fact of suppressing all others; superiority. and power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosityAnimosity noun Strong hostility. , and rendered them much more disposed to vexVex verb To make someone feel annoyed, frustrated, or worried. and oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good. So strong is this propensityPropensity noun An inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way. of mankind to fall into mutual animosities, that where no substantial occasion presents itself, the most frivolousFrivolous adjective Not having any serious purpose or value. and fancifulFanciful adjective Over imaginative and unrealistic. distinctions have been sufficient to kindleKindle verb Arouse or inspire. their unfriendly passions and excite their most violent conflicts. But the most common and durableDurable adjective Able to withstand wear, pressure, or damage. source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society. Those who are creditorsCreditors noun A person or company to whom money is owed., and those who are debtorsDebtors noun A person or institution that owes a sum of money., fall under a like discrimination. A landed interest, a manufacturing interest, a mercantileMercantile adjective Of or relating to trade or commerce; commercial. interest, a moneyed interest, with many lesser interests, grow up of necessity in civilized nations, and divide them into different classes, actuated by different sentiments and views. The regulation of these various and interfering interests forms the principal task of modern legislationLegislation noun A law or body of laws enacted., and involves the spirit of party and faction in the necessary and ordinary operations of the government. The hidden causes of faction are part of the nature of man. Different opinions about religion and government, ambitious leaders competing for power, and human passions have divided mankind into parties and have inflamed them with mutual hostility, making them more likely to oppress each other than cooperate for their common good. Mankind’s tendency toward mutual hostility is so strong that the smallest differences can cause disagreements and even violence. The most common and lasting source of factions is the unequal distribution of property—the division of society into the rich and the poor. The rich and the poor always have distinct interests in society, much like creditors and debtors. In civilized nations, property owners, manufacturers, merchants, bankers, and lesser occupations develop out of necessity and divide into different classes with different sentiments and views. Balancing between the rich and the poor is the principal task of modern legislation, which is why the different factions care about government policies and practices.
No man is allowed to be a judge in his own cause, because his interest would certainly bias his judgment, and, not improbably, corrupt his integrity. With equal, nay with greater reason, a body of men are unfit to be both judges and parties at the same time; yet what are many of the most important acts of legislation, but so many judicial determinations, not indeed concerning the rights of single persons, but concerning the rights of large bodies of citizens? And what are the different classes of legislators but advocates and parties to the causes which they determine? Is a law proposed concerning private debts? It is a question to which the creditors are parties on one side and the debtors on the other. Justice ought to hold the balance between them. Yet the parties are, and must be, themselves the judges; and the most numerous party, or, in other words, the most powerful faction must be expected to prevail. Shall domestic manufactures be encouraged, and in what degree, by restrictions on foreign manufactures? are questions which would be differently decided by the landed and the manufacturing classes, and probably by neither with a sole regard to justice and the public good. The apportionmentApportionment noun The act of distributing or allocating proportionally. of taxes on the various descriptions of property is an act which seems to require the most exact impartiality; yet there is, perhaps, no legislative act in which greater opportunity and temptation are given to a predominantPredominant adjective Present as the strongest or main element. party to trample on the rules of justice. Every shillingShilling noun A former British coin and monetary unit equal to one twentieth of a pound or twelve pence. with which they overburden the inferior number, is a shilling saved to their own pockets. No man is allowed to be a judge in his own case because his self-interest would bias his judgment. More importantly, a group of men are not fit to be judges and parties at the same time, yet groups of men in legislatures make decisions on legislative acts about the rights of large groups of citizens that they are apart of. Therefore, different classes of legislators are both advocates and parties for the causes they determine. If a proposed law concerns private debts, creditors are parties on one side and debtors are on the other side. Justice should hold the balance between them, yet the parties have the ability to make the decisions about what becomes law, and the largest party, or the most powerful faction, will be expected to prevail. Should domestic manufactures be encouraged by restrictions on foreign manufacturers? Landowners and manufacturers would answer differently, and neither group would consider the public good in their decision. The apportionment of taxes on different kinds of property would require the most fairness, yet there is no type of legislative act that gives greater temptation for the dominant party to trample on the rules of justice. For every shilling they overburden the minority party, they save a shilling to their own pockets.
It is in vainVain adjective Producing no result; useless. to say that enlightenedEnlightened adjective Having or showing a rational, modern, and well-informed outlook. statesmen will be able to adjust these clashing interests, and render them all subservientSubservient adjective Prepared to obey others unquestioningly. to the public good. Enlightened statesmen will not always be at the helmHelm noun A position of leadership.. Nor, in many cases, can such an adjustment be made at all without taking into view indirect and remoteRemote adjective Having very little connection with or relationship to. considerations, which will rarely prevail over the immediate interest which one party may find in disregarding the rights of another or the good of the whole. It is useless to say that enlightened statesmen will be able to adjust these conflicting interests, making them all subservient to the public good. Enlightened statesmen will not always be in charge. Also, no adjustments can be made without considering indirect issues, which rarely prevail over the immediate interest one party may have in ignoring the rights of another party or the good of the whole.
The inference to which we are brought is, that the CAUSES of faction cannot be removed, and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its EFFECTS. Therefore, the obvious conclusion is that the causes of faction cannot be removed, and that relief can only be sought by controlling its effects.
If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republicanRepublican adjective A form of government in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives. principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinisterSinister adjective Giving the impression that something harmful or evil will happen. views by regular vote. It may clog the administration, it may convulseConvulse verb Throw into violent social or political upheaval. the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government, on the other hand, enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both the public good and the rights of other citizens. To secure the public good and private rights against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our inquiriesInquiries noun An act of asking for information. are directed. Let me add that it is the great desideratumDesideratum noun Something that is needed or wanted. by which this form of government can be rescued from the opprobriumOpprobrium noun Harsh criticism or censure. under which it has so long labored, and be recommended to the esteemEsteem noun Respect and admiration. and adoption of mankind. If a faction is smaller than a majority of society, relief comes from the republican principle that enables the majority to defeat harmful views by regular vote. The minority faction may clog the government systems and convulse society, but it will be unable to execute its will under the Constitution. When a faction is a majority, popular government enables it to sacrifice the public good and the rights of other citizens to its passions and interests. Protecting the public good and private rights against the danger of such a majority faction, and at the same time preserving the spirit and form of popular government, is the goal of government. Let me add that our greatest desire is to rescue this form of popular government from harsh criticisms, and recommend it be admired and adopted by mankind.
By what means is this object attainable? Evidently by one of two only. Either the existence of the same passion or interest in a majority at the same time must be prevented, or the majority, having such coexistentCoexistent adjective Existing at the same time or in the same place. passion or interest, must be rendered, by their number and local situation, unable to concertConcert verb Arrange something by mutual agreement or coordination. and carry into effect schemesSchemes noun A secret or underhanded plan; a plot. of oppression. If the impulse and the opportunity be suffered to coincide, we well know that neither moral nor religious motives can be relied on as an adequate control. They are not found to be such on the injustice and violence of individuals, and lose their efficacyEfficacy noun The ability to produce a desired or intended result. in proportion to the number combined together, that is, in proportion as their efficacy becomes needful. How is this object attainable? Evidently by only one of two ways: Either the passions and interests of the majority faction must be prevented, or that faction must be stopped from carrying out schemes of oppression. If the desire and opportunity to trample the minority's rights coincide, neither moral nor religious motives can be relied on as adequate control. Moral and religious values do not control the injustice and violence of individuals, and lose their effectiveness in proportion to the number of people involved.
From this view of the subject it may be concluded that a pure democracy, by which I mean a society consisting of a small number of citizens, who assemble and administer the government in person, can admit of no cure for the mischiefs of faction. A common passion or interest will, in almost every case, be felt by a majority of the whole; a communication and concert result from the form of government itself; and there is nothing to check the inducementsInducements noun A thing that persuades or influences someone to do something. to sacrifice the weaker party or an obnoxious individual. Hence it is that such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulenceTurbulence noun Conflict and confusion. and contentionContention noun A heated disagreement.; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths. TheoreticTheoretic adjective Based on or calculated by theory rather than experience or practice. politicians, who have patronizedPatronized verb To give financial or other support to a person, organization, activity, or cause. this species of government, have erroneously supposed that by reducing mankind to a perfect equality in their political rights, they would, at the same time, be perfectly equalized and assimilatedAssimilated verb Cause something to resemble; liken. in their possessions, their opinions, and their passions. From this view it may be concluded that a pure democracy, or a society of a small number of citizens who assemble and administer the government in person, cannot cure the harms of faction. A common passion or interest will almost always be felt by a majority of the whole, and there is nothing to check the influences to sacrifice the weaker party or obnoxious individual. Therefore, such democracies have always been displays of turbulence and contention, and are incompatible with personal security or property rights. Their lives are as short as their deaths are violent. Political theorists who have supported this type of government have mistakenly supposed that making men equal in their political rights will equalize their possessions, opinions, and passions.
A republic, by which I mean a government in which the scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect, and promises the cure for which we are seeking. Let us examine the points in which it varies from pure democracy, and we shall comprehend both the nature of the cure and the efficacy which it must derive from the Union. A republic, by which I mean a government in which the people elect representatives who govern, promises the cure we are seeking. Let us examine how a republic varies from pure democracy and we will understand both the nature of the cure and the effectiveness it derives from the Union.
The two great points of difference between a democracy and a republic are: first, the delegationDelegation noun A body of representatives. of the government, in the latter, to a small number of citizens elected by the rest; secondly, the greater number of citizens, and greater sphereSphere noun An area of activity, interest, or expertise; A section of society or an aspect of life. of country, over which the latter may be extended. The two greatest differences between a democracy and a republic are: first, in a republic, citizens elect a small number of representatives to serve as the government; secondly, republics can be made up of a greater number of citizens over a larger area.
The effect of the first difference is, on the one hand, to refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the mediumMedium noun An agency or means of doing something. of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discernDiscern verb Perceive or recognize. the true interest of their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations. Under such a regulation, it may well happen that the public voice, pronounced by the representatives of the people, will be more consonantConsonant adjective In agreement or harmony with. to the public good than if pronounced by the people themselves, convened for the purpose. On the other hand, the effect may be invertedInverted verb Put upside down or in the opposite position, order, or arrangement.. Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may, by intrigue, by corruption, or by other means, first obtain the suffragesSuffrages noun The right to vote in political elections., and then betray the interests, of the people. The question resulting is, whether small or extensive republics are more favorable to the election of proper guardians of the public wealWeal noun That which is best for someone or something.; and it is clearly decided in favor of the latter by two obvious considerations: The first difference—that citizens elect representatives to govern for them—promotes the public views by passing them through a chosen group of representatives, whose wisdom will allow the representatives to act in the best interest of their country. Also, these representatives will be less likely to sacrifice the public good for temporary passions or biased interests. Under this type of government, the public voice pronounced by the representatives of the people will be more consistent with the public good than if all people spoke for themselves. However, a system with elected representatives could have the opposite effect. Men of factious tempers with local biases or sinister motives may obtain votes through corruption and then betray the interests of the people. The resulting question is whether small or large republics elect better guardians of the public good, and it is clear that larger republics do for two obvious reasons.
In the first place, it is to be remarked that, however small the republic may be, the representatives must be raised to a certain number, in order to guard against the cabalsCabals noun A secret political clique or faction. of a few; and that, however large it may be, they must be limited to a certain number, in order to guard against the confusion of a multitudeMultitude noun A large number.. Hence, the number of representatives in the two cases not being in proportion to that of the two constituents, and being proportionally greater in the small republic, it follows that, if the proportion of fit characters be not less in the large than in the small republic, the former will present a greater option, and consequently a greater probability of a fit choice. In the first place, however small the republic may be, there must be enough representatives to guard against the schemes of a few, and however large the republic may be, the number of representatives must be limited to guard against the confusion of a multitude. It is necessary for the numbers of representatives to be in proportion to their constituents, and this is more likely to happen in a larger republic. Therefore, the large republic is a better option.
In the next place, as each representative will be chosen by a greater number of citizens in the large than in the small republic, it will be more difficult for unworthy candidates to practice with success the viciousVicious adjective Immoral; imperfect; defective. arts by which elections are too often carried; and the suffrages of the people being more free, will be more likely to centre in men who possess the most attractive meritMerit noun The quality of being particularly good or worthy. and the most diffusiveDiffusive adjective Tending to spread out widely. and established characters. Next, as each representative will be chosen by a greater number of citizens in a large republic, it will be more difficult for unworthy candidates to successfully win elections through immoral means. And with more free voting rights for the people, it is more likely that elections will center on men who possess the most merit and best character.
It must be confessed that in this, as in most other cases, there is a mean, on both sides of which inconveniences will be found to lie. By enlarging too much the number of electors, you render the representatives too little acquainted with all their local circumstances and lesser interests; as by reducing it too much, you render him undulyUnduly adjective Unwarranted or inappropriate. attached to these, and too little fit to comprehendComprehend verb Grasp mentally; understand. and pursue great and national objects. The federal Constitution forms a happy combination in this respect; the great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local and particular to the State legislatures. However, difficulties will be found. Having too many constituents leaves the representatives too little acquainted with local concerns and lesser issues. Too few electors renders the representatives unduly attached and unfit to understand and pursue great and national interests. The federal Constitution forms a happy combination in this respect because the great and aggregate issues are referred to the national government, and the local issues are referred to the State legislatures.
The other point of difference is, the greater number of citizens and extent of territory which may be brought within the compass of republican than of democratic government; and it is this circumstance principally which renders factious combinations less to be dreaded in the former than in the latter. The smaller the society, the fewer probably will be the distinct parties and interests composing it; the fewer the distinct parties and interests, the more frequently will a majority be found of the same party; and the smaller the number of individuals composing a majority, and the smaller the compassCompass noun The range or scope of something. within which they are placed, the more easily will they concert and execute their plans of oppression. Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invadeInvade verb Encroach or intrude on. the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other. Besides other impedimentsImpediments noun A hindrance or obstruction in doing something., it may be remarked that, where there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonorable purposes, communication is always checked by distrust in proportion to the number whose concurrenceConcurrence noun Accordance in opinion; agreement. is necessary. The other difference between a pure democracy and a republic is that a republic can be composed of a greater number of citizens over a larger territory than a democracy, which makes factious combinations difficult. In a small society there are fewer distinct parties and interests, and these parties will more frequently form a majority. If a small number of individuals compose a majority and inhabit a small area, it will be easier for this majority to work together to execute their plans of oppression. Extending the territory adds a greater variety of parties and interests, which makes it less likely that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens. Even if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for those with that interest to discover their own strength and act in unison with each other. An increase in the necessary communication needed for similar factions to coordinate with one another will be checked by an increase in distrust between the factious groups.
Hence, it clearly appears, that the same advantage which a republic has over a democracy, in controlling the effects of faction, is enjoyed by a large over a small republic,—is enjoyed by the Union over the States composing it. Does the advantage consist in the substitution of representatives whose enlightened views and virtuous sentiments render them superior to local prejudices and schemes of injustice? It will not be denied that the representation of the Union will be most likely to possess these requisiteRequisite adjective Made necessary by particular circumstances or regulations. endowmentsEndowments noun A quality or ability possessed or inherited by someone.. Does it consist in the greater security afforded by a greater variety of parties, against the event of any one party being able to outnumber and oppress the rest? In an equal degree does the increased variety of parties comprised within the Union, increase this security. Does it, in fine, consist in the greater obstacles opposed to the concert and accomplishment of the secret wishes of an unjust and interested majority? Here, again, the extent of the Union gives it the most palpablePalpable adjective Clear to the mind or plain to see. advantage. Hence, it clearly appears that the same advantage a republic has over a democracy, in controlling the effects of faction, is enjoyed by a large over a small republic, and enjoyed by the Union over the States composing it. Is the advantage the result of substituting enlightened representatives who are above local prejudices and schemes of injustice? It will not be denied that the representation of the Union will most likely possess these necessary qualities. Is it the greater security afforded by a greater variety of parties, so that one party cannot outnumber and oppress the rest? Does the increased variety of parties within the Union increase this security? Is a large republic more secure because it has more obstacles to the collaboration of the secret wishes of an unjust majority? Again, the large size of the Union gives it a visible advantage.
The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagrationConflagration noun An extensive fire that destroys a great deal of land or property. through the other States. A religious sectSect noun A group of people with somewhat different religious beliefs from those of a larger group to which they belong. may degenerateDegenerate verb Decline or deteriorate physically, mentally, or morally. into a political faction in a part of the ConfederacyConfederacy noun A league or alliance of states joined by an agreement or treaty.; but the variety of sects dispersedDispersed verb Distribute or spread over a wide area. over the entire face of it must secure the national councils against any danger from that source. A rage for paper money, for an abolitionAbolition noun The action of putting a system, practice, or institution to an end. of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less aptApt adjective Having a tendency to do something. to pervadePervade verb Be present and apparent throughout. the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it; in the same proportion as such a maladyMalady noun A disease or ailment. is more likely to taint a particular county or district, than an entire State. Factious leaders may gain power within their own States, but will be unable to spread their influence through the other States. A religious sect may degenerate into a political faction in part of the Confederacy, but the variety of sects spread over the entire country secures the national councils against that danger. A rage for paper money, for elimination of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper project, will be less likely to spread to the entire Union than just a part of it, just like an illness is more likely to taint a particular county or district than an entire State.
In the extent and proper structure of the Union, therefore, we behold a republican remedy for the diseases most incidentIncident adjective Likely to happen because of; resulting from. to republican government. And according to the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in being republicans, ought to be our zeal in cherishing the spirit and supporting the character of Federalists. In the size and proper structure of the Union, therefore, we see a republican remedy for factions, the most common disease of republican government. According to the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in being republicans, we ought to cherish and support the character of Federalists.
PUBLIUS.
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